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Jay Stauffer received his BS from Cornell University in 1972 and completed his Ph.D from Virginia polytechnic institute and state university in 1975.From April 1975 until June1984 he was an assistance professor for Appalachian Environmental Laboratory, Center for Environmental and Estuarine Studies at the University of Maryland. From July 1984, he has been with the Penn State School of Forest Resources, first as an Associate Professor of Fishery Science from July 1984 to June 1988. Then as a Professor of Ichthyology from July 1988 until December 2005 and now as a Distinguished Professor of Ichthyology. He acts as an editor and session chairman for American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists Annual Meeting at Penn State which is held in June 2001.He has published nearly 250 articles.Dr.Stauffer had received Phi sigma award in 1974 for outstanding graduate research in the biological sciences at VPI & SU.In 1974 he had received sigma Xi award for outstanding graduate students and promoting scholarly achievement. In 1990 he had also received an Fulbright Research Scholar award. Professor Stauffer is certified as a Professional Fisheries Biologist by the American Fisheries Society. He is also a member of the American Institute of Fishery Research Biologists. He had published many articles including the River of the Dammed: Longitudinal changes in fish assemblages in response to dams" with Jonathan Freedman, B. D. Lorson, R.B. Taylor, R. F. Carline, J.R. Stauffer, "Introgression in Lake Mala?i: Increasing the Threat of Human Urogenital Schistosomiasis?" with Jay R Stauffer, Henry Madsen, David Rollinson. "Prey species and size choice of the molluscivorous fish, black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus)" N. M. Hung, J. R. Stauffer, H. Madsen
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of major public health importance in many countries in Africa, Asia, and South America. The disease is caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma that require specific freshwater snail species to complete their life cycles (Fig. 1). Prior to 1985, the open waters of Lake Mala?i were free from schistosome transmission. Over the past decades, however, the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis has increased dramatically in the southern part of the lake. We found the prevalence of human schistosomiasis in school-aged children to be negatively correlated with the density of molluscivorous fishes. Specifically, the increase in infection rate in southern Lake Mala?i between 1978 and 1991 is coincident with the reduction in numbers of snail-eating fishes. During 2003, we determined the relative abundance of molluscivorous fishes and snail density at 18 sites throughout the lake, and schistosome infection in school-aged children living in selected lake shore communities of Lake Mala?i. At the 18 sites sampled in 2003, we found that snail abundance decreased with an increase in abundance of snail-eating fishes. Furthermore, the 2003 samples showed that the abundance of snail-eating fishes increased and there was a reduction in schistosomiasis in school-aged children in Chembe Village. We believe that we will not observe a return to the 1978 infection rates until these fishes continue to increase and inhabit shallower waters. The transmission of the disease may be further complicated. We postulated that a strain of S. haematobium from other parts of Africa, which was introduced into the Cape Maclear region of Lake Mala?i by tourists, was compatible with Bulinus nyassanus—which is a close relative of B. truncatus, and interbred with the indigenous strain of S. haematobium, which ultimately produced via introgression a strain that can use both B. globosus and B. nyassanus as intermediate hosts. This actively evolving situation involving intermediate snail–host switching and decline of Trematocranus placodon, a natural cichlid snail predator, will impact on transmission of urogenital schistosomiasis within the local communities and on tourists who visit Lake Mala?i.